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RESC: Food: More Research Help


An important part of research is creating accurate citations, references, and bibliographies.

Annotated Bibliographies

Creating an annotated bibliography can help prepare you to write a strong research paper. An annotated bibliography is a list of sources (like a bibliography), where each source is followed by a short summary and/or evaluation (the annotation). Writing the annotations requires you to read for comprehension and critically examine how each source meets your research needs.


Annotations can take a variety of forms, but most contain three key components: a summary, an evaluation, and a reflection.


  • Summary: What is the source about? What are the key ideas, concepts, or themes? How would you describe the source to someone who hasn't read it?
  • Evaluation: Is this source credible? Does it include biases or is it objective? Does the author's background or education suggest that they are authoritative on the topic? If the author does make an argument, is it persuasive or logical?
  • Reflection: How does this source serve your research needs? How will you use it in your paper? Does this source have a connection with any other sources you're planning to include? Does this source help shape or support your argument?


Your annotated bibliography may contain only some of these components or may include additional information. Ask your professor what they expect if you're writing an annotated bibliography for class.

Example Annotated Bibliography

Synthesizing Information

In an annotated bibliography, each source is examined independently. When you write a research paper, you need to weave together and combine these sources with your own thoughts to form a cohesive argument. This is called information synthesis.

Article Annotations

Reading peer-reviewed articles can be challenging. They are typically written by scholars, for scholars, and assume a high level of understanding from readers. Making annotations as you read can help with comprehension.

Subject Librarian

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Ally Wood
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Bertrand Library
Research Help Area RM 113
Phone: (570) 577-3235
Text the Library: @ 570-487-3898
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